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Author Topic: CALENDAR - SEP 1752 - 11 DAYS MISSING!!!  (Read 35169 times)
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**DIV**
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« on: May 06, 2010, 01:57:13 PM »
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<http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/index.html?year=1752>
Have u ever seen the calendar for September 1752???
Please see the attachment.

u can also search it in google

Explanation for what you see:


Isn't the output queer? A month with whole of eleven days missing. This was the time England shifted from Roman Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar,
and the king of England ordered those 11 days to be wiped off the face of the month of September of 1752. (What couldn't a King do in those days?!)
And yes, the workers worked for 11 days less, but got paid for the entire 30 days.[/
color]



<http://historicalresources.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_calendar_change_of_1752>
In 1752, England finally followed the rest of Europe in the change to the more accurate Gregorian calendar, thereby creating consistent dates on one calendar.

Ever wonder why certain dates are notated strangely, with two dates for the year, separated by a slash? The difference in the Julian and Gregorian calendars is to thank for the notation. Understanding the intricacies of the differences can be confusing, before one fully explores the reasons and mechanics behind the change.

Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar, commissioned by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C. was divided into twelve months, based on a solar year. The rotation for years seems very similar to the calendar used today: three years contained 365 days, with every fourth year possessing 366 days, a leap year. The large difference between the Julian calendar and that of today was New Years Day which fell on March 1, rather than January 1 on the Julian calendar.

Christian Changes to the Julian Calendar
After the Roman Empire fell, in A.D. 5, New Years was set for Christmas Day. New Years was once more reset, in the ninth century, for March 25 to correspond to Annunciation Day, nine months prior to Christmas Day and the date for the angel Gabrielís visit to the Virgin Mary, informing her that she would be the mother of Christ. Some of the names of modern months reflect their numerical placement in the Julian year. For example, September was the seventh month, October the eighth, November the ninth and December the tenth, all reflecting the Latin numerical prefixes for their placement.

Gregorian Calendar
In the middle ages, it was discovered that the Julian calendar miscalculated leap years to count an extra day for each one hundred twenty-eight years. So, by 1582, great problems regarding Christian holidays were occurring, with some falling outside of their proscribed seasons and inaccuracies of up to nearly two weeks occurred for the equinoxes.

Therefore, in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII authorized the new calendar, appropriately name the Gregorian calendar, which involved a great many confusing changes for the transition to occur.

The Calendar Change of 1752: England's Switch from the Julian to Gregorian Calendars http://historicalresources.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_calendar_change_of_1752#ixzz0n8TvWnCH



* Calendar 1752.doc (658 KB - downloaded 870 times.)
« Last Edit: May 06, 2010, 02:10:02 PM by **DIV** » Logged

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« Reply #1 on: May 06, 2010, 02:03:14 PM »
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The 1752 Calendar Change
 

Today, Americans are used to a calendar with a "year" based the earth's rotation around the sun, with "months" having no relationship to the cycles of the moon and New Years Day falling on January 1.  However, that system was not adopted in England and its colonies until 1752.  The changes implemented that year have created challenges for historians and genealogists working with early colonial records, since it is sometimes hard to determine whether information was entered according to the then-current English calendar or the "New Style" calendar we use today.

Throughout history there have been numerous attempts to convey time in relation to the sun and moon.  Even now the Chinese and Islamic calendars are based on the motion of the moon around the earth, rather than the motion of the earth in relation to the sun, and the Jewish calendar links years to the cycle of the sun and months to the cycle of the moon.

The Julian Calendar
In 45 B.C., Julius Caesar ordered a calendar consisting of twelve months based on a solar year.  This calendar employed a cycle of three years of 365 days, followed by a year of 366 days (leap year).  When first implemented, the "Julian Calendar" also moved the beginning of the year from March 1 to January 1.  However, following the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, the new year was gradually realigned to coincide with Christian festivals until by the seventh century, Christmas Day marked the beginning of the new year in many countries.

By the ninth century, parts of southern Europe began observing first day of the new year on March 25 to coincide with Annunciation Day (the church holiday nine months prior to Christmas celebrating the Angel Gabriel's revelation to the Virgin Mary that she was to be the mother of the Messiah). The last day of the year was March 24. However, England did not adopt this change in the beginning of the new year until late in the twelfth century.

Because the year began in March, records referring to the "first month" pertain to March; to the second month pertain to April, etc., so that "the 19th of the 12th month" would be February 19.  In fact, in Latin, September means seventh month, October means eighth month, November means ninth month, and December means tenth month.  Use of numbers, rather than names, of months was especially prevalent in Quaker records.

The Gregorian Calendar
During the Middle Ages, it began to became apparent that the Julian leap year formula had overcompensated for the actual length of a solar year, having added an extra day every 128 years.  However, no adjustments were made to compensate.  By 1582, seasonal equinoxes were falling 10 days "too early," and some church holidays, such as Easter, did not always fall in the proper seasons.  In that year, Pope Gregory XIII authorized, and most Roman Catholic countries adopted, the "Gregorian" or "New Style" Calendar."  As part of the change, ten days were dropped from the month of October, and the formula for determining leap years was revised so that only years divisible by 400 (e.g., 1600, 2000) at the end of a century would be leap years.  January 1 was established as the first day of the new year. Protestant countries, including England and its colonies, not recognizing the authority of the Pope, continued to use the Julian Calendar.

Double Dating
Between 1582 and 1752, not only were two calendars in use in Europe (and in European colonies), but two different starts of the year were in use in England.  Although the "Legal" year began on March 25, the use of the Gregorian calendar by other European countries led to January 1 becoming commonly celebrated as "New Year's Day" and given as the first day of the year in almanacs.

To avoid misinterpretation, both the "Old Style" and "New Style" year was often used in English and colonial records for dates falling between the new New Year (January 1) and old New Year (March 25), a system known as "double dating." Such dates are usually identified by a slash mark [/] breaking the "Old Style" and "New Style" year, for example, March 19, 1631/2.  Occasionally, writers would express the double date with a hyphen, for example, March 19, 1631-32.  In general, double dating was more common in civil than church and ecclesiastical records.

The Changes of 1752
In accordance with a 1750 act of Parliament, England and its colonies changed calendars in 1752. By that time, the discrepancy between a solar year and the Julian Calendar had grown by an additional day, so that the calendar used in England and its colonies was 11 days out-of-sync with the Gregorian Calendar in use in most other parts of Europe.

England's calendar change included three major components. The Julian Calendar was replaced by the Gregorian Calendar, changing the formula for calculating leap years.  The beginning of the legal new year was moved from March 25 to January 1.  Finally, 11 days were dropped from the month of September 1752. 

The changeover involved a series of steps:

December 31, 1750 was followed by January 1, 1750 (under the "Old Style" calendar, December was the 10th month and January the 11th)
March 24, 1750 was followed by March 25, 1751 (March 25 was the first day of the "Old Style" year)
December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 (the switch from March 25 to January 1 as the first day of the year)
September 2, 1752 was followed by September 14, 1752 (drop of 11 days to conform to the Gregorian calendar)
Which Calendar Is It?
Out of context, it is sometimes hard to determine whether information in colonial records was entered "Old Style" or "New Style." Some examples:

In the Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, "A Corte at New Towne [Hartford] 27 Decr. 1636" is immediately followed by a court held "21 Febr. 1636," which is followed, in turn, by "A Cort att Hartford, Mrch 28th, 1637". Although it may first appear that the February session was entered out of sequence, the arrangement is actually correct.  Under the "Old Style" calendar and legal new year, 1636 began on March 25.  December 1636 was followed by January 1636 and February 1636, and 1636 continued through March 24.

The "Warwick Patent" is dated the "Nineteenth day of March in the Seventh/ yeare of ye reigne of our Sovergne Lord Charles by ye grace of God/ Kinge of England Scotland Ffrance and/ Ireland defender of ye ffaith &c Anno Dom/ 1631." Although not double dated, the historical context indicates that the date as recorded was "Old Style."  If double dated, it would have been recorded as March 19, 1631/2; if recorded "New Style," it would be March 19, 1632. 

John and Joane Carrington, accused of "familliarity with Sathan the great Enemye of God and mankinde" were indicted by Connecticut's Particular Court on "6 March 1650/1."  In his "diary" or notebook, Matthew Grant records that they were executed "mar. 19.50."  Although Grant did not employ the double date, had he done so it would have been recorded as March 19, 1650/1.

Although current historical scholarship calls for retention of Old Style dates in transcriptions, historians and genealogists need to be aware that some people living at the time converted the date of an event, such as a birthday, from Old Style to New Style.  George Washington, for example, was born on February 11, 1731 under the Julian Calendar, but changed the date to February 22, 1732 to reflect the Gregorian Calendar. 

<http://www.cslib.org/CalendarChange.htm#Gregorian>

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« Reply #2 on: May 06, 2010, 09:41:17 PM »
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« Reply #3 on: June 29, 2010, 04:29:33 AM »
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Yes Kamal, this is really a thing to know how our present Calendar has been developed.
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« Reply #4 on: June 29, 2010, 10:28:17 AM »
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« Reply #5 on: June 29, 2010, 10:31:25 PM »
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In India though officially we are following the inherited British calander and also Shak sambat but in personal lives all important celebrations and mahurats are worked out on the Almanacs which differ form place to place..That's why there are two dates for most of the festivals in india.  There are around  40 almanacs in India.
In india some follow Vikrami Sambat while others folow Shak sambat.IN north India a new month start following the  full moon day (purnima);in Central India from the new moon day called Amamwas while in South Sun's entry in Zodiac is the start of the month.
Similarly in North marriages are conducted in night where in South it's in day.In some parts there is prohibition to start any good work or celebrations but in other parts on those very dates there is no such prohibitions .Even in the area of Indian calenders called Almanac(Panchang)there is huge diversity.
Is it not very strange that a country like India which is credited with discovery of Zero and had astrologers credited with many astronomical and astrological discoveries unknown to west does not have a single calender.
Perhaps it's also part of the clitch "unity in diversity"
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« Reply #6 on: August 31, 2010, 02:28:01 PM »
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U are right Yayaavar.
In India each one is free to follow his own system. Hinduism is a democratic way of life.
It gives freedom to everyone even in worshipping the God(s). May be this is the reason it has withstood the test of time.
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« Reply #7 on: August 31, 2010, 02:41:37 PM »
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« Reply #8 on: July 31, 2013, 11:28:13 AM »
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Nice information very usefull...

Regards!!
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« Reply #9 on: November 08, 2013, 08:55:55 AM »
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